Showing posts with label sour beer. Show all posts
Showing posts with label sour beer. Show all posts

Friday, 24 July 2015

Quare Good IPA

My mate Dave asked me to brew him an IPA which he could take away in a jerry can, ferment, dry hop, and bottle at home when it's done. Dave has been a recipient of Davy Uprichard's excellent cider juice of 2014 and has confirmed his position on the 2015 guest list, so by now he's no stranger to alcoholic beverages by the jerry can.

Dave lives in the Wexford Mountains, where everything except strawberries and Wexford queens is in short supply. Dave's initial request was for a "Double IPA" prompting me to produce a simple enough recipe along the lines of BrewDog's Hardcore IPA, which to my surprise drew horror. 9% abv was the issue. Clearly there was a problem with definitions! So after a bit of ping pong the "Double IPA" was binned and a new recipe for quaffing of around 5% drawn up, with hop fruitiness.

This meant lots of US hops and a simple grain bill. Where I decided to throw a semi curve ball was the yeast. This would normally be a US-05 or WLP-001 no-brainer, but I decided to go with Brett Sacch WLP-644. This gained a bit of notoriety this year when it was DNA sequenced and found not to be brettanomyces but in fact saccharomyces. White Labs have subsequently renamed it in an artist-formerly-know-as fashion and it's now Saccharomyces "Bruxellensis" Trois.

A few things that are unusual about WLP-644:
  1. It's slower than regular saccharomyces. Allow 2 weeks to finish primary.
  2. It super attenuates. Think 85% or more, compared to ~75% for regular sacch.
  3. With lots of wort aeration it possibly can generate a small amount of acetic acid, though this is open to debate.
  4. It can form a pellicle.
Lucan County Water
Again as it was going to be hoppy, it meant Leixlip water was out. As I've written before Leixlip water is far too hard to be suitable for brewing this sort of beer without treatment, and so I opted to use water from the Lucan County instead. As there is no such thing of course as Lucan water, they just get a blend of our Leixlip water and another very soft source, I think currently Ballymore Eustace (ironically both sources are 100% Liffey water). On the day in question Lucan water was showing 90 ppm on the TDS meter and in comparison Leixlip was at 230 ppm. TDS isn't hardness but it's a general indication, and Lucan was showing a mere 40% of whatever Leixlip was on the day.

Recipe for 40 litres

Amount Item Type % or IBU
9.50 kg Pale Malt (2 Row) MCI (5.9 EBC) Grain 95.00 %
0.50 kg White Wheat Malt Bairds (4.7 EBC) Grain 5.00 %
30.00 gm Hop Extract [51.00 %] (60 min) Hops 87.4 IBU
60.00 gm Cascade [5.50 %] (0 min) Hops -
60.00 gm Citra [12.00 %] (0 min) Hops -
90.00 gm Centennial [10.00 %] (Dry Hop 3 days) Hops -
150.00 gm Citra [12.00 %] (Dry Hop 3 days) Hops -
60.00 gm Cascade [5.50 %] (Dry Hop 3 days) Hops -
0.50 items Whirlfloc Tablet (Boil 15.0 min) Misc
1 Pkgs WLP644 (White Labs #WLP644) Yeast-Ale

Est Original Gravity: 1.056 SG Measured Original Gravity: 1.058 SG
Est Final Gravity: 1.008 SG Measured Final Gravity: 1.008 SG
Estimated Alcohol by Vol: 6.3% Actual Alcohol by Vol: 6.5%
Bitterness: 87.4 IBU Calories: 542 cal/l
Est Color: 10.3 EBC Color:

Unusually for such a large brew I overshot my efficiency targets by a few percent, which is the opposite to what I'd expect: instead of 70% or so on this size of a brew, I actually hit 77%. Also, even more annoying was when I was drawing up the recipe I left US-05 as the yeast in BeerSmith as it didn't have an entry for WLP-644 (it's the old version, 1.4), which of course meant the anticipated attenuation was much lower, at around 72%. Using these two figures (70% efficiency and 72% attenuation) would have resulted in 5% abv on the dot. Mental note: put in the right yeast at the start in future!

Using hop extract in this one was a no-brainer as it meant the hop debris if I had used pellets was greatly minimised. I still don't have a way of dealing with large amounts of hops that I'm 100% happy with. Guess I'll just have to keep at the whirlpooling.

The wort was split into a 33 litre fermenter and a 25 litre jerry can for Dave to take home. I had made a moderate sized starter with the WLP-644, though I'm not sure that was necessary as it was vigorously healthy when I was slanting it. Dave got half the starter and I got the other half. I split the dry hops and vacuum packed Dave's share for the arduous journey up the mountains.

As I said earlier about WLP-644, this brew took a fortnight at 22°C to hit terminal gravity of 1.008. It dry hopped about a week in, and once terminal gravity reached it was fined with gelatine at 2°C for a few days before being racked and in my case kegged. Dave bottled his.

Tasting Notes
Bright copper and opaquely coloured with a lasting white head and associated lacing, this is quite an awesome brew! Very fruity and also quite bitter. It's definitely in the "Double IPA" league when it comes to hop flavour and bitterness. There is no perceivable acidic taste and the pH meter, showing 4.5, confirms there is no real acid present. It's one of the better IPAs I've brewed. What would I change? Well nothing really apart from the bitterness. At around 90 IBUs it's not to everyone's taste, and I think a few of Dave's mountainous mates are finding it a bit tougher going than the large bottles of McArdles off the shelf that they're used to.

Quare Good Lad

Thursday, 2 July 2015

Lambic 2.1

After the lambic barrel of 2014 was emptied I decided I wouldn't get involved in the re-filling. This was for a number of reasons, but the most relevant one to this blog is that I already brewed to this formula and used this barrel so I know what to expect from it. Been there, done that, so to speak, without wanting to sound crude. While I'm very happy with the results from that barrel I have always felt it could have had more bite. I don't recall seeing any pH meters on the brew day, but the finished beer only clocked 4.2 on the pH scale a year later. While the beer compares very favourably on the whole, the acid deficiency is clear when commercial examples are compared, which often have a pH of less than 3.5. In Classic Beer Styles 3: Lambic, Jean Xavier Guinard typifies "hard" lambic as having a pH around 3.4 and "soft" as 3.9. (page 36) and the European Union has declared the highest pH to be considered lambic as 3.9. So ignoring geographical origin that beer was not a lambic by other established standards.

I also understand the mashing process a bit better having done a bit more reading and talking to people at Toer de Geuze, so I have refined the procedure somewhat. A couple of things that seem to be missing from a lot of texts is an explanation for the small bit of barley malt that is added to the wheat during gelatinisation. There are conflicting reasons cited for this but some say it's to perform a mash of sorts to help make the gelatinisation of the wheat starches easier. Also there is no need to boil the wheat, it just needs to be kept above its gelatinisation temperature. Anyone who looks at a turbid mash schedule, which is what the genuine lambic breweries in Belgium do will notice that there is no cereal mash and at no point is the wheat boiled. For the reason I've changed some of the steps, simplifying and speeding up the process a bit:

The original quantities gave a water to grain ratio of about 3:1. This is in the regular ale brewing range but from experience I can say that with that much wheat both the mash and sparge are close to sticking point. My new step of adding 3L of boiling water to the gelatinisation pot after the 30 minute gelatinisation rest the "strike" water thins to a ratio of 3.6:1 in the mashtun while also helping to raise the temperature of the pot contents to "strike" temperature. This keeps the mash thin enough not to stick but lots of stirring is still required to aid conversion.

For 20L, revised:

1. Add 2kg wheat + 0.6kg malt to a pot with 15L water and heat to around 62°C
2. Bring to gentle boil for 30 mins
2. NEW: Hold at ~62°C for 30 minutes
3. Let cool to normal strike temp for your gear, plus 3 or 4°C (as you want to mash at 70°C)
3. Add 3L of boiling water to the pot. Apply heat and raise temperature of the pot contents to 3 or 4°C above normal strike temperature (to 80°C in my case).
4. Use as strike water and add to the remaining 2.4kg malt in the mash tun.
5. Hold at 70°C for 2 hours.
6. Sparge with 92°C water until 26L collected.
7. Boil for 2 hours, add 3-7 IBU shitty hops at 120 mins.
8. Collect around 20L in the fermenter.

I have done this procedure twice now (and lambic 2.0.1 twice), and not being restricted to a barrel has allowed me to experiment with different configurations, especially with regard to yeast. The first two were brewed to the 2.0.1 schedule and have WLP-645 grown up from dregs of a Framboise given to me by Nigel Comerford. As of 18 June 2015 these have fermented out, but have not produced a pellicle, three months in. Both done to the 2.1 schedule were actually done as a double brew, and split into 2 x 20L batches. Both were fermented out with a neutral ale yeast before having dregs added: the first had the dregs from the 2014 lambic barrel added, the second had the dregs from Boon Mariage Parfait. Two months later both smell fantastic, though the Mariage Parfait is edging it. Both are showing signs of pellicle development too.

Since I wrote this I had refined the process even more and will blog about it after my next brew. I'm going to call it 3.0 as it's different enough to warrant it. Stay tuned!


Saturday, 6 June 2015

Lick Then Hammer - Part 2

This is a continuation of this post: Lick Then Hammer

Pellicle
In the previous article I omitted what I was going to do as regards yeast and bugs in the Lichtenhainer I was brewing, the main reason being that I was departing from the established norm to the point where I was nervous the resulting beer would be crap! To recap, the basic details of the brew were:

  • 20 litre batch
  • 1.9Kg Weyermann rauchmaltz (beech smoked barley malt)
  • 1.9Kg Baird's wheat malt
  • 200g Weyermann acidulated malt
  • 8g of Hallertauer Hersbrucker in the mash
  • Regular 75 minute infusion mash at 66°C
  • 60 minute boil
This is where I departed from other recipes. Rather than opting for a controlled environment I decided to make a lacto starter from some Weyermann acid malt. From our chat with Chris White we know that the subspecies most common on grain is L. brevis, but of course there is always the risk that something else is there. I pitched the starter at 40°C and let sit at warm room temperature for a couple of days. There was quite a bit of airlock activity and when the gravity dropped to 1.016 I added a small amount of Brett Bruxellensis, the Yeast Bay Beersel mix to be exact. It was fascinating to watch the pellicle form on this over the next couple of weeks! When activity seemed to slow to the point where there was very little I racked to a corny keg. A Lichtenhainer is the kind of beer that should be consumed young!

So how did it turn out?

Yum yum
Great is the short answer, but I would make improvements. It hasn't cleared, which is doubtless due to the wheat. In contrast Smoke Signals is crystal clear. There is a nice acid twang, perhaps not as strong as in Smoke Signals but the smoke levels are roughly equivalent, going from memory. What I would definitely change though is the Brett. The recipes I've come across online had a Kolsch yeast, and I think this would suit the style better. Indeed Smoke Signals has that clean flavour profile with no (non-smoke) phenolics and no other attributes that Brett brings. This is definitely on the rebrew list but next time I will make an actual L. brevis starter to elimiate any uncertainties, and use a clean ale yeast like WLP-001 or US-05. I think I'll drop the wheat malt too and just use pale or lager in its place, maybe with some carapils.

All in a worthwhile brew that I'll tweak and do again.

Cheers!

Wednesday, 27 May 2015

Brew 176: Quick Oud Bruin

Turbo cider is all the rage on the home brewing section of popular Irish internet forum boards.ie, and while I've tasted a turbo cider or two, I've always felt you can't rush perfection. Not that it's perfection but the Bulmers/Magners ad says "Nothing added but time"; they may be on to something.

This is a recipe inspired by one in American Sour Beers, but adapted to what I had available at the time and can't really be considered the same recipe.

This is an interesting brew in that the batch is split in half, one half is fermented with regular ale yeast, US-05 in my case, and the other half is spiked with lacto. When sufficiently sour both halves are combined to form the finished beer.


Amount Item Type % or IBU
4.20 kg Pale Malt (2 Row) UK (5.9 EBC) Grain 85.71 %
0.25 kg Amber Malt (43.3 EBC) Grain 5.10 %
0.15 kg Roasted Barley (591.0 EBC) Grain 3.06 %
0.10 kg Caramel/Crystal Malt - 60L (118.2 EBC) Grain 2.04 %
0.10 kg Corn, Flaked (2.6 EBC) Grain 2.04 %
0.10 kg Oats, Flaked (2.0 EBC) Grain 2.04 %
14.00 gm Magnum [14.00 %] (60 min) Hops 23.0 IBU
1 pkg Safale US-05 Yeast In one half
1 pkg Lactobacillus starter Yeast The other half
20.00 gm Light toast French oak chips Oak

The water was boiled Leixlip water, with no other treatment. After five days the pH of the lacto portion had dropped to 3.4 which I combined with the ale yeast fermented portion, racked to secondary, and let condition for a couple of weeks with some light toast French oak chips. Once conditioned I kegged and force carbed.

Tasting Notes

Oud Bruin is one of my favourite styles of beers, Liefman's Goudenband and Rodenbach Grand Cru both being personal favourites, both of which I can usually get locally. A genuine Oud Bruin takes a considerable amount of time to produce, spending years ageing in stainless steel tanks, and it shows, as this is where my version of of this recipe falls down: its lack of depth. While it's very drinkable it's sort of one dimensional and probably has more in common with a Berliner Weiss than it does with the real thing. There is a slight astringency from one of the dark grains, I'm not sure which, but I think next time I'll use all Belgian grains. And it's also slightly too dark. The final beer pH is 3.9 which isn't overly sour but all in all not a bad brew and one worth tweaking.




Tuesday, 14 April 2015

Lick Then Hammer

London Calling

L-R: Smoke Signals, Dave
In recent years the London beer scene, and indeed the wider UK scene has witnessed an explosion in creativity in craft beer. So much so that there is a distinction (and friction) being created between those traditional Real Ale breweries and the craft beer breweries, and their fans. I noted in some CAMRA branch magazines in summer 2014 statements like "I brew Real Ale, not that fizzy kegged stuff called craft beer" with a certain degree of vitriol.

So with this in mind I returned to London in March 2015, on a trip devoted purely to craft beer (and catching up with college friends). On our travels we visited the Euston Tap, a must-see on the London tourist circuit never mind the beer circuit. There's a barman in the Tap by the name of Dave who is from Lucan. Anyone who knows Lucan will know it's now a big place, but Dave is from the part that is close to one of my favoured licensed premises, the Lucan County bar. Dave is very welcoming, especially if he hears an Irish accent. He also has a great knowledge of beer, and of the huge selection of beers that the Tap serves. In fact this is true of all staff in the Tap, which is very refreshing. It's as if selling bodacious beverages is a vocation and not just a job.

Dave recommended to me that I try a beer called Smoke Signals from a brewery in Berkshire called Siren, whom I hadn't heard of before. The beer is described as a dry hopped smoked sour wheat ale. Smoke in beer normally puts me off, as unlike with bacon I don't consider it a perfect marriage. I've had a few examples of grodziskie/gr├Ątzer, a historical style of smoked wheat beer from the Polish/German border and it hasn't floated my boat. More historic but also modern beers such as rauchbier from Schlenkerla, or even closer to home Smokescreen from Metalman, haven't lifted that boat either, so it was with some trepidation that I went on Dave's recommendation and ordered a Smoke Screen.

Whoa, this was not supposed to happen! The blend of quite an amount of sour bitterness with quite a lot of smoke actually somehow didn't not work. And then there's hops too! When I say it didn't not work, I mean I'm not sure it works, like smoky bacon works, but it works well enough that I'd have another. Thankfully Siren now has a distributor in Ireland (Pro Addition), though I haven't seen Smoke Signals here (yet).

So with my curiosity piqued I decided when I got home I'd try to brew something like this. Turns out with a bit of googling it would appear that Siren weren't the first to brew a smoked sour wheat ale. That distinction belongs to the good people of central Germany, in and around the town of Lichtenhain. Another historical style that is largely gone, there is an opinion that a Lichtenhainer is somewhere between a Berliner weisse and a grodziskie, though the historical records show that it was more likely that the sourness was developed in secondary, unlike with a Berliner. The rest is up for debate: how much wheat (if any), the ratio of smoked to non-smoked malt, and so on. Accounts differ. I presume the brewers at Siren read Ron Pattison's blog too, as Ron went into some detail about Lichtenhainer as far back as 2008.

Formulating a recipe should be fairly easy as we're under constraints that are largely due to lactobacillus being involved. The guys over at The Beer Files blog have done a pretty good write-up and have surmised:
  1. It must be sessionable. This goes almost without saying with a beer that is produced using lactobacillus in primary. Especially if it's L. delbreuckii as that subspecies is homofermentative. i.e. it will attenuate out, but your sugars won't have turned to alcohol. Of course this is based on the assumption that lacto will be used in primary as kettle souring etc is common, even fashionable in current times, though historically it wasn't used for this style of beer.
  2. Low IBUs. Again lacto and IBUs don't mix, 15 being commonly considered the limit.
  3. Tart. Lacto!
  4. Smoky. The only attribute not related to lacto.

As I said above there is some variation in the reports of what was in the grist and how much but while researching I found this page about Mark Schoppe's award-winning recipe. Mark won the 2012 Ninkasi award, which is a prize given by the AHA (American Homebrewers Assoc.) for the home brewer with the most amount of points in the final stage of the NHC (National Homebrew Competition), although it's not clear if this beer contributed towards that win, but it did win other awards. Ironically the BJCP sanctioned competitions give more points for beers that are closely follow their guidelines, but Lichtenhainer is one of the many styles missing. There is an update due to the style guidelines due in 2015, and it's good to see than Lichtenhaier is included in the 2014 draft.

Mark's recipe, adapted for my conditions is:

  • 20 litre batch
  • 1.9Kg Weyermann rauchmaltz (beech smoked barley malt)
  • 1.9Kg Baird's wheat malt
  • 200g Weyermann acidulated malt
  • 8g of Hallertauer Hersbrucker in the mash
  • Regular 75 minute infusion mash at 66°C
  • 60 minute boil
  • Lactobacillus delbreuckii added when wort has cooled to 40°C
  • Yeast TBC

I've taken to boiling all my brewing water to precipitate some of the hardness, but my TDS meter generally shows around 130ppm which is far harder than I want it to be. To compensate I've started to use a lot more acid malt than usual. Longer term I plan to switch water supply completely.

Abraxas

Shortly after brewing this I met with Dean Clarke, purveyor of the finest beverages on behalf of Premier International to chat about a project I'm involved in. As if sent by God, Dean casually informed me over a 7-Up in the Salmon Leap Inn that he had a boot full of Lichtenhainer from German brewer Freigeist ("Free spirit") in the car park. Who would have thought someone else would have brought Lichtenhainer to Leixlip before I did! Freigeist are an offshoot of Cologne’s small brewery Braustelle, a part of the Brauerei Goller of Zeil Am Main. All their beers are on the unusual side, complete with 30's black and white horror movie type labels. Premier are importing these into Ireland and there is quite a variety, and all the the Lichtenhainer brews are under the Abraxas moniker. Most have fruit, but there is also a weisse . They're just starting to trickle into off-licences, so if you see one go for it.